Michael Yapko. It's called How to recover from depression and it's available on Youtube and in text format. Yapko identifies risk factors ("anything that increases the likelihood of somebody suffering a particular disease or condition") that increase your chances to have depression. For example, children of depressed parents have three to six times more chance to be depressed, making depression a contagious social disease.
Learning about those risks factors was a huge help in stopping antidepressants and I wanted, both as a reminder for myself and for others, to write them down.
Please be aware that again, this is not a medical advice and that if you need one, you should seek help form a professional.
Risk factors can be extremely personal, or quite the opposite, shared by a lot of people. And that's those more common ones that Yapko describe in his talk.
He explains five of them:
Internal orientation is the act of using yourself as the reference point. It's using feelings to make decisions, and using feelings to interpret what you are interpreting.
The internal orientation drives people inwardly. It's a narcissistic self-absorption attitude driven by the "Trust your feelings" advice (which according to Yapko is a very very bad advice). The problem is, feelings are deceiving and can make things look way worse, or way better, than what they really are.
Depressed people think things and then make the mistake of actually believing themselves. To try to get out of this subjective mindset, they have to learn to reality test. Going outside of themselves to better understand what's really happening and generate multiple explanations to an event that is triggering depression.
Internal orientation, among other things, can lead to bad decision making. And bad decision making complicates and exacerbates depression by creating stress. Yapko takes the simple example of exercising. It has the same success rate as a treatment as antidepressants. But someone listening to their feelings won't do it. Same for going to the doctor, or a therapist, or stopping alcohol.
Feelings come and go, but consequences of our actions last. To get out of these stressing loops, depressed people need to take actions that are consistent with their personal goals, and avoid taking actions consistent with their feelings. It's particularly important to not take decisions without a balanced mood, as its state influences the perceptions and the quality of decisions.
Rumination is the act of spinning around the same thoughts and endlessly analyzing at the expense of taking action. Rumination increases anxiety and depression by making basic things, like sleeping, difficult.
Ruminators are often trying to figure out what to do next based on what happened before. They use the past to predict the future, an habit called past orientation.
To get out of this loop, it's important to not define itself by the unchangeable history. For survivors of a traumatic event, it's important to recognize it, but not let it orientate the future as it will close the field of possibilities.
One of the cures of rumination taking action in a timely and effective manner. Another one is to learn the difference between useful analysis and useless rumination.
Global cognition is the act of generalizing instead of problem solving. It's the unfamous "Men/Women are all the same" after a breakup.
Being a global thinker prevents from achieving goals by forbidding going into specifics. It doesn't mean that people are globally thinking every aspect of their life. They can be very good at problem solving specific things, and unable to do the same into other areas without even acknowledging it.
Global thinking takes time to fix as it requires exercising with a therapist to sequence the steps needed to achieve a desired goal. It's basically learning to flow chart and micro-analyzing life.
Having unrealistic expectations is a recipe for hurt and disappointment. The main problem is, do people know that they have unrealistic expectations?
Basic examples could be expecting repeated signs of affection from a partner that has never been very demonstrative to begin with. It can also be not expecting unrealistic things from others when they don't have any control on those things, like winning the lottery. It's not that expecting things is bad, just that those things have to be in line with reality.
Taking a step back to reality check expectations is also a skill that can be learned.
Reading about those risk factors and how it can be socially contagious was eye opening. Rumination and unrealistic expectations are common in my family and were transmitted to my siblings and I. The generated stress often leads to a destructive attitude that is shared by several members. Fortunately, most of us in the family identified those patterns pretty early in adult life and worked to mitigate them.
I'm a bit inclined to internal orientation and I ruminate a lot instead of taking action. What surprised me was that my previous therapist did not thought about rumination as something dangerous. She said that sometimes, it's good to imagine how things could have turn out or fantasize to relieve stress, so I never interpreted it as something negative.
After watching the video and thinking it through, I stopped taking my antidepressants. Despite being at a very, very low dosage, withdrawal symptoms were brutal for two weeks. But having read about them and remembering to not listen to myself too much, I passed through it and came out clean.
But I quickly realized that I had other habits feeding my depression that I needed to eliminate. Among them, I stopped bringing my phone inside my bedroom, and bought a sunlight alarm clock. Removing my phone was actually the biggest and quickest benefit I felt. It significantly reduced my ruminations. It also leveled up my mood in the morning because, shocked-pikachu.jpg, getting up and opening shutters before seeing a screen is good for humans.
Still, there was last one thing. I got used to drink alcohol, even in small quantities, as was a way to relieve stress after work.
Seeing how Yapko insisted alcohol was a terrible mistake, I packed all the bottles of my house into bags and dropped them to a friend's, to its delight. I didn't drink for a month, then relaxed my rules to allow myself a beer under conditions: no alcohol in the house, no alcohol outside the house during working days.
I compensate the lack of alcohol with two things, ginger ale and sport. I registered to a gym two months ago and am now trying to go two times a week. It's expensive and I dislike the place, the effort and the overall experience so much it turns into a battle against internal orientation every time. But I try to remember it's a mean that aligns to my goals, and the dopamine rush during the after workout shower is real.
Overall it's been working well for those last two months. I still ruminate, I still listen to myself a little bit too much, but I'm starting to identify those moments and mentally push them away. It's probably going to take months, if not years, before I can say I recovered from depression and anxiety, but I'm happy to finally having this goal in my life, and taking action to achieve it.